Steam coal is one of the key types of fuel used to generate electric power. This type of fuel is cheaper than gas and oil. Rather low cost and large coal reserves allow active consumption of coal products by all global industrial and urban centers because it is irreplaceable in manufacturing three most critical bases for construction – electric power, steel, and cement.
Power generation plants use steam coal mainly composed of bituminous coal due to the optimal balance between heat transfer and cost which caused its widest use. Lignite is less used because its heat generation capacity is relatively low and emissions of combustion by-products are relatively high. However, some developed countries are increasingly using brown and semi-bituminous coal because the content of sulphur having a considerable adverse impact on the environment is less than in bituminous coal. Anthracite is perfect fuel: it emits an extremely small quantity of combustion by-products; it almost does not smoke and emits a considerable quantity of heat. However, its universal use is complicated by relatively high cost of extraction and low level occurrence in nature.
Coal for metallurgical industry is equally important. About 75 % of all steel in the world is made with the help of metallurgical coke generated during bituminous coal processing at high temperature, without oxygen supply (coking process). To produce coke, special coking coal is used; it is rather rare – only about 20 % of bituminous coal is coked. It is the type of coal which is extremely critical in metallurgical industry.
COKING COALS are bituminous coals with medium level of carbonization, which mixtures (charges) with other coals or without mixing are used in industrial coking processes to receive lump coke with specific size and strength.
Coking coals include coals grades G, GZh, Zh, KZh, K, K2, OS, and SS, with division into process groups based on caking capacity. Coking coals grade K (coking) and KZh (coking fat) are used to receive spec blast furnace coke without mixing with other coals. Fat coal grade Zh (fat) and GZh (gas fat) are used to receive, without mixing with other coals, well melted but finer coke which physical and mechanical properties are worse than those accepted for blast furnace coke. Blast furnace coke can be easily received from fat coals in binary mixtures with coking or lean coking coals. lean coking coals grade K2 (coking second) and OS (lean baking) are used, without mixing, to receive coke with higher resistance to abrasion, physical and mechanical properties not corresponding to the ones of blast furnace coke. Blast furnace coke from lean coking coals is received in binary mixtures with fat coals. Gas coals grade K (gas) are used to receive, without mixing with other coals, well melted coke, which is easily separated into fine and coarse lumps with low mechanical strength. Gas coals intended for receiving blast furnace coke in up-to-date coke ovens using the conventional technology of charge preparation can be used only in mixtures with well coking coals. Low-caking coals grade SS (low-caking) do not result in lump coke without mixing with other coals. Blast furnace coke can be received from them only if mixed with fat coals (at least 70–85 % of fat coals).
Pulverized coal is a large energy reserve of the fuel base in ferrous metal industry of the country, which can cover the growing deficit of coking coals and coke for blast-furnace smelting.
Pulverized coal is a type of fuel representing coal which is pre-ground in finest powder (dust). It is used as independent fuel or additives in steam operated boilers, metallurgical furnaces or other thermal generating units.
PCI may partially replace expensive coking coal which also allows reducing gas consumption for steel making in blast furnaces. Pulverized coal allows reducing natural gas consumption in blast-furnace process by 90 % and more by using cheaper coal mixtures and allows reducing coke consumption by up to 20 %.
Natural gas is a hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane and some other gases. Gas is typically removed from deep underground rocks with drilling rigs, processed to remove impurities such as water and carbon dioxide, and sold as consumer fuel for heating, cooking or generation of wholesale electricity. It is also used to power vehicles and to make plastics and chemicals. We specialize on natural gas supplies both wholesale and to end users. We are pleased to enter into long-term contracts for supply and sale, and also can quickly and innovative to respond to the needs of our customers. Our business related to natural gas is part of the comprehensive solution that makes us a partner for producers and end-users. Company BASIS Trade AG also received permission for the transportation of natural gas by public transport, and storage in underground gas storage through these companies: Gas Connect Austria (Austria) Eustream (Slovakia) Gas Transmission System Operator of Ukraine (Ukraine) JSC «Ukrtransgaz» (Ukraine) The company maintains long-term contracts to supply natural gas to large European companies.